Clue: Stripped (of)
We have 1 answer for the clue Stripped (of). See the results below.
- Deprived (of)
- Cut off from, with "of"
- Suffering a loss
- Robbed (of)
- Deprived, as of happiness
- Sorrowful through loss
Last Seen In:
- LA Times Sunday - October 28, 2012
- New York Times - July 12, 2002
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